Прочитайте текст и устно переведите его. выберите единственно правильный ответ к поставленному вопросу. when deciding questions of diversification and simplification, marketers must also look at the potential size of a market, at the financial position and practices of their firm, and at the resources available. all these elements influence the breadth of the product line. determining where to position particular products is an impor¬tant marketing decision. an item such as deodorant may be introduced specifically as a men`s or women`s product, but later may be repositioned as a family product. in addition to positioning with respect to consumer seg¬ments, marketing managers position their products with respect to the competition. a magazine publisher may wish to position a publication so as to challenge the leader in a given market. changes in format, emphasis, or editorial policy can appeal to the same consumer interests that buy the leader if, in this example, the result is also to appeal to a market which is more affluent and more quality-conscious, the price will be raised. this process is known as trading up. another aspect of product policy, particularly relevant to con¬sumer goods marketers, deals with brands. branding is commonly used by marketers to influence consumers` perceptions and is closely related to the issue of positioning. it identifies merchandise and differentiates it from competing products. the marketer hopes for sales stability due to consumer loyalty to the brand. ideally, this occurs when consumers are so satisfied with the merchandise that they note and remember the brand. when a manufacturer sells more than one product, there is a brand choice issue. a firm which merchandises many types of soap may choose individual brands for each of its products. the hand soap, dish detergent, clothes detergent, and scouring powder will all be labeled with different brand names. what is the purpose of branding?
Human rights day on 10 december 1948, the united nations general assembly adopted the universal declaration of human rights, which has become a (1) ... standard for defending and promoting human rights. every year on 10 december, human rights day marks the adoption of the universal declaration which states that "human beings are born with (2) ... rights and fundamental freedoms". in 2006, human rights day focused on (3) ... poverty as a matter of obligation, not of charity. poverty is (4) ... by human rights violations. the links between human rights and poverty should be obvious: people whose rights are (5) ... are more likely to be poor. generally they find it harder or impossible to participate in the labour market and have little or no access to (6) ... services and resources. meanwhile, the poor in many societies cannot enjoy their rights to education, health and housing simply (7) ... they cannot afford them. and poverty affects all human rights: for example, low income can prevent people from accessing education, which in turn inhibits their participation in public life and their ability to influence the policies affecting them. governments and those in a position of authority must (8) ... responsibility for dealing with poverty. the realisation of human rights – including the fight against poverty – is a duty, not a mere aspiration. read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (2).