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The irish travellers are the largest minority in ireland. there are about 25,000 irish travellers in ireland and 1,300 in northern ireland. they are a little understood nomadic community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into irish society. among the challenges facing them are poverty and racism. the irish travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic romani, an ethnic group which originated in the region of india and is now widespread throughout europe. but the irish travellers are indigenous to ireland, so the two cultures are not related. while both are nomadic, the irish travellers are roman catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. they have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. they are noted for their musical and storytelling abilities. in times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the major sources of income in those days. tinsmiths were so prevalent among irish travellers that the terms tinker and irish traveller were used interchangeably. today, tinker is one of many names for irish travellers. horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. they continue their life on the road, but there are fewer places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. today, irish travellers mainly work in recycling. changing needs of society and progress have eliminated the jobs that could support a culture on wheels. irish travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. their life expectancy is lower than average while their infant mortality rate is higher than average. as is the case with the romani, the irish travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. people distrust their nomadic culture and their language, shelta. many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the irish travellers trick innocent people. but this is not true. it is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. once heavily infused with irish gaelic, it is now infused with english. read the text and complete the gap in the sentences with the words from the text. ... are the two main problems of irish travellers.

Прочитайте предложенный текст и выберите единственно правильный ответ in carrying out management functions, such as planning, organizing, motivating and controlling, a manager will be continually making decisions. decision-making is a key management responsibility. some decisions are of the routine kind. they are decisions which are made fairly quickly and are based on judgement. since a manager is experienced, he knows what to do in certain situations. he does not have to think too much before taking action. for example, a supervisor in a supermarket may decide, on the spot, to give a refund to a customer who has brought a product. the manager does not have to gather a great deal of additional information before making the decision. other decisions are often intuitive ones. they are not really rational. the manager may have a hunch or a gut feeling that a certain course of action is the right one. he will follow that hunch and act accordingly. thus, when looking for an agent in an overseas market, a sales manager may have several companies to choose from. however, he may go for one organization simply because he feels it would be the most suitable agent. such a decision is based on hunch, rather than rational thought. many decisions are more difficult to make since they involve problem-solving. very often they are strategic decisions involving major courses of action which will affect the future direction of the enterprise. to make good decisions the manager should be able to select, rationally, a course of action. in practice, decisions are usually made in circumstances which are not ideal. they must be made quickly, with insufficient information. it is probably rare that a manager can make an entirely rational decision. when a complex problem arises, like where to locate a factory or which new product to develop, the manager has to collect facts and weigh up courses of action. he must be systematic in dealing with the problem. a useful approach to this sort of decision -making is as follows: the process consists of four phases: defining the problem; analyzing and collecting information; working out options and deciding on the best solutions. the key task of a manager is …

Прочитайте предложенный текст и выберите единственно правильный ответ most well-run organizations attempt to develop and follow strategies, large-scale action plans for interacting with the environment in,order to achieve long-term goals. a comprehensive statement of an organization`s strategies, along with`its mission arid goals, constitutes an organization`s strategic plan. to learn where such strategies originate and how they are put in action, we need to examine carefully an aspect of the planning function called strategic management. strategic management is a process through which managers formulate and implement strategies geared to optimizing strategic goal achievement, given available environmental and internal conditions. this definition recognizes that strategic management is oriented toward reaching long-term goals, weighs important environmental elements, considers major internal characteristics of the organization, and involves developing specific strategies. the strategic management process is made up of several major components. the process begins with identifying the organization`s mission and strategic goals. the process also includes analyzing the competitive situation, taking into consideration both the external environment and relevant organizational factors. the part of the strategic management: process triat includes identifying the mission and strategic goals, conducting competitive analysis, and developing specific strategies is often referred to as strategy formulation. in contrast, the part of the strategic management process that focuses on carrying out strategic plans and maintaining control over how those plans are carried out is known as strategy implementation. strategy implementation is increasingly highlighted as a distinct part of the strategic management process because even the most brilliantly formulated strategies must be implemented effectively in order to reach strategic goals. a strategic plan is …

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